**Unit I: Physical World and Measurement (Periods 10)**

Physics: Scope and excitement; nature of physical laws; Physics, technology and society.

Need for measurement: Units of measurement; systems of units; SI units, fundamental and derived

units. Length, mass and time measurements; accuracy and precision of measuring instruments; errors in

measurement; significant figures.

Dimensions of physical quantities, dimensional analysis and its applications.

**Unit II: Kinematics (Periods 30)**

Frame of reference, Motion in a straight line: Position-time graph, speed and velocity. Uniform and

non-uniform motion, average speed and instantaneous velocity. Uniformly accelerated motion, velocitytime and position-time graphs, relations for uniformly accelerated motion (graphical treatment).

Elementary concepts of differentiation and integration for describing motion. Scalar and vector

quantities: Position and displacement vectors, general vectors and notation, equality of vectors, multiplication

of vectors by a real number; addition and subtraction of vectors. Relative velocity.

Unit vectors. Resolution of a vector in a plane – rectangular components.

Scalar and Vector products of Vectors. Motion in a plane. Cases of uniform velocity and uniform

acceleration – projectile motion. Uniform circular motion.

**Unit III: Laws of Motion (Periods 16)**

Intuitive concept of force. Inertia, Newton’s first law of motion; momentum and Newton’s second

law of motion; impulse; Newton’s third law of motion. Law of conservation of linear momentum and its

applications.

Equilibrium of concurrent forces. Static and kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction, lubrication.

Dynamics of uniform circular motion: Centripetal force, examples of circular motion (vehicle on

level circular road, vehicle on banked road).

**Unit IV: Work, Energy and Power (Periods 16)**

Work done by a constant force and a variable force; kinetic energy, work-energy theorem, power.

Notion of potential energy, potential energy of a spring, conservative forces; conservation of mechanical

energy (kinetic and potential energies); non-conservative forces; motion in a vertical circle, elastic and

inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions.

**Unit V: Motion of System of Particles and Rigid Body (Periods 18)**

Centre of mass of a two-particle system, momentum conservation and centre of mass motion. Centre

of mass of a rigid body; centre of mass of uniform rod.

Moment of a force, torque, angular momentum, conservation of angular momentum with some

examples.4

Equilibrium of rigid bodies, rigid body rotation and equation of rotational motion, comparison of linear

and rotational motions; moment of inertia, radius of gyration. Values of M.I. for simple geometrical objects

(no derivation). Statement of parallel and perpendicular axes theorems and their applications.

**Unit VI: Gravitation (Periods 14)**

Kepler’s laws of planetary motion. The universal law of gravitation. Acceleration due to gravity and its

variation with altitude and depth.

Gravitational potential energy; gravitational potential. Escape velocity, orbital velocity of a satellite.

Geostationary satellites.

**Unit VII: Properties of Bulk Matter (Periods 28)**

Elastic behaviour, Stress-strain relationship, Hooke’s law, Young’s modulus, bulk modulus, shear,

modulus of rigidity, poisson’s ratio; elastic energy.

Pressure due to a fluid column; Pascal’s law and its applications (hydraulic lift and hydraulic brakes).

Effect of gravity on fluid pressure.

Viscosity, Stokes’ law, terminal velocity, Reynold’s number, streamline and turbulent flow. Critical

velocity, Bernoulli’s theorem and its applications.

Surface energy and surface tension, angle of contact, excess of pressure, application of surface tension

ideas to drops, bubbles and capillary rise.

Heat, temperature, thermal expansion; thermal expansion of solids, liquids, and gases. Anomalous

expansion. Specific heat capacity: Cp , Cv

– calorimetry; change of state – latent heat.

Heat transfer – conduction and thermal conductivity, convection and radiation. Qualitative ideas of

Black Body Radiation, Wein’s displacement law, and Green House effect.

Newton’s law of cooling and Stefan’s law.

**Unit VIII: Thermodynamics (Periods 12)**

Thermal equilibrium and definition of temperature (zeroth law of Thermodynamics). Heat, work and

internal energy. First law of thermodynamics. Isothermal and adiabatic processes.

Second law of thermodynamics: Reversible and irreversible processes. Heat engines and refrigerators.

**Unit IX: Behaviour of Perfect Gas and Kinetic Theory (Periods 8)**

Equation of state of a perfect gas, work done on compressing a gas.

Kinetic theory of gases: Assumptions, concept of pressure. Kinetic energy and temperature; rms

speed of gas molecules; degrees of freedom, law of equipartition of energy (statement only) and application

to specific heat capacities of gases; concept of mean free path, Avogadro’s number.

**Unit X: Oscillations and Waves (Periods 28)**

Periodic motion – period, frequency, displacement as a function of time. Periodic functions. Simple

harmonic motion (SHM) and its equation; phase; oscillations of a spring – restoring force and force constant;

energy in SHM – kinetic and potential energies; simple pendulum – derivation of expression for its time

period; free, forced and damped oscillations (qualitative ideas only), resonance.

Wave motion. Longitudinal and transverse waves, speed of wave motion. Displacement relation for a

progressive wave. Principle of superposition of waves, reflection of waves, standing waves in strings and

organ pipes, fundamental mode and harmonics. Beats. Doppler effect.5

**PRACTICALS**

Total Periods 60

**Section A**

**Experiments**

1. To measure diameter of a small spherical/cylindrical body using Vernier callipers.

2. To measure internal diameter and depth of a given beaker/calorimeter using Vernier callipers and

hence find its volume.

3. To measure diameter of a given wire using screw gauge.

4. To measure thickness of a given sheet using screw gauge.

5. To measure volume of an irregular lamina using screw gauge.

6. To determine radius of curvature of a given spherical surface by a spherometer.

7. To determine the mass of two different objects using a beam balance.

8. To find the weight of a given body using parallelogram law of vectors.

9. Using a simple pendulum, plot L-T and L-T

2

graphs. Hence find the effective length of a second’s

pendulum using appropriate graph.

10. To study the relationship between force of limiting friction and normal reaction and to find the

coefficient of friction between a block and a horizontal surface.

11. To find the downward force, along an inclined plane, acting on a roller due to gravitational pull of

the earth and study its relationship with the angle of inclination (?) by plotting graph between force

and sin ?.

**Activities**

1. To make a paper scale of given least count, e.g. 0.2 cm, 0.5 cm.

2. To determine mass of a given body using a metre scale by principle of moments.

3. To plot a graph for a given set of data, with proper choice of scales and error bars.

4. To measure the force of limiting friction for rolling of a roller on a horizontal plane.

5. To study the variation in the range of a jet of water with the angle of projection.

6. To study the conservation of energy of a ball rolling down on inclined plane (using a double

inclined plane).

7. To study dissipation of energy of a simple pendulum by plotting a graph between square of

amplitude and time.6

**Section B**

**Experiments**

1. To determine Young’s modulus of elasticity of the material of a given wire.

2. To find the force constant of a helical spring by plotting a graph between load and extension.

3. To study the variation in volume with pressure for a sample of air at constant temperature by

plotting graphs between P and V, and between P and 1/V.

4. To determine the surface tension of water by capillary rise method.

5. To determine the coefficient of viscosity of a given viscous liquid by measuring the terminal velocity

of a given spherical body.

6. To study the relationship between the temperature of a hot body and time by plotting a cooling

curve.

7. To determine specific heat capacity of a given (i) solid (ii) liquid, by method of mixtures.

8. (i) To study the relation between frequency and length of a given wire under constant tension

using sonometer.

(ii) To study the relation between the length of a given wire and tension for constant frequency

using sonometer.

9. To find the speed of sound in air at room temperature using a resonance tube by two resonance

positions.

**Activities**

1. To observe change of state and plot a cooling curve for molten wax.

2. To observe and explain the effect of heating on a bi-metallic strip.

3. To note the change in level of liquid in a container on heating and interpret the observations.

4. To study the effect of detergent on surface tension of water by observing capillary rise.

5. To study the factors affecting the rate of loss of heat of a liquid.

6. To study the effect of load on depression of a suitably clamped meter scale loaded at (i) at its end

(ii) in the middle.