da is the area vector to the surface and it is taken +ve along the outward normal to the surface
For closed surface
Flux in closed surface is equal net charge inside divided by ε
a. E is the electric field present due to all charges in the ssystem not just the charge inside
b.Flux crossing a closed surface does not depend on the shapes and size of gaussian surface
Electric Potential energy of a charge
=qV where V is the potential there
Others important things
1. ∫ E.dl over closed path is zero
2.Electric potential in the spherical charge conductor is Q/4πεR where R is the radius of the shell and the potential is same everywhere in the conductor
3 Conductor surface is a equipotential surface
Class 9 physics notes on chapter motion is now available at the following link CLASS 9 MOTION NOTES (FULL LENGTH)
Question1: A charge Q is divided in two parts q and Q - q separated by a distance R. If force between the two charges is maximum, find the ...
Coherent sources are those sources of light which emit continous light waves of same wavelength , same frequency and are in same phase or h...
Our New Free physics ebooks (pdfs) are available at this link . Hope you lile them.
Unit I: Physical World and Measurement (Periods 10) Physics: Scope and excitement; nature of physical laws; Physics, technology and society...
ADVANTAGES The generation of A.C. is cheaper than that of D.C. A.C. machines are simple , robust and do mot require much attention for the...
Hi all here in this article i am giving some tips and tricks to solve problems in mechanics. To master problem solving skill you need to pra...
1.A particle moves in a straight line with retardation proportional to its displacement. Its loss of kinetic energy for any displacement x i...
Many times i have had users ask me a question which book to opt between H.C Verma Concepts of physics and NCERT physics books . My answer ...
Unit I: Electrostatics (Periods 25) Electric charges and their conservation. Coulomb’s law – force between two point charges, forces betwee...