Electric Potential Energy
Where ΔU = Change in Potential energy
W= Workdone by the electric lines of forces
For a system of two particles
where r is the seperation between the charges
We assume U to be zero at infinity
Similarliy for a system of n charges
U=Sum of potential energy of all the distinct pairs in the system
For example for three charges
Another way to represent
where V is the potential at charge q due to all the remaining charges
Just liken Electric field intensity is used to define the electric field,we can also use Electric Potential to define the field
Potential at any point P is equal to th workdone per unit test charge by the external agent in moving the test charge from the refrence point(without Change in KE)
So for a point charge
where r is the distance of the point from charge
Some points about Electric potential1. It is scalar quantity
2.Potential at point due to system of charges will be obtained by the summation of potential of each charge at that point
3.Electric forces are conservative force so workdone by the electric force between two point is independent of the path taken
4. V2-V1=-∫ E.dr
5 In cartesion coordinates system
Ey=∂V/∂y and Ez=∂V/∂z
Surface where electric potential is same everywhere is call equipotential surface
Electric field components parallel to equipotential surface is always zero
A combination of two charge +q and -q seperated by the distance d
Where d is the vector joiing negative to positive charge
Electric potential due to dipole
where r is the distance from the center and θ is angle made by the line from the axis of dipole
Torque on dipole=pXE
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