da is the area vector to the surface and it is taken +ve along the outward normal to the surface
For closed surface
Flux in closed surface is equal net charge inside divided by ε
a. E is the electric field present due to all charges in the ssystem not just the charge inside
b.Flux crossing a closed surface does not depend on the shapes and size of gaussian surface
Electric Potential energy of a charge
=qV where V is the potential there
Others important things
1. ∫ E.dl over closed path is zero
2.Electric potential in the spherical charge conductor is Q/4πεR where R is the radius of the shell and the potential is same everywhere in the conductor
3 Conductor surface is a equipotential surface
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